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Holistic Education in the Level of Venezuelan Primary:

A Resilient Vision of Education


Author: César Enrique López Arrillaga

Universidad Latinoamericana y el Caribe, ULAC


Caracas, Venezuela



The present essay aims to address holistic education in the subsystem of primary education from the perspectives of Simpson (2010), in his work Sociocultural Resilience, likewise the contributions of Sambrano (2010), in terms of resilience, in order to perform a theoretical approach to the possible linking of holistic education in the Venezuelan primary education subsystem, generating an approach in the resilient vision of education within the framework of holistic education, which promotes a teaching practice focused on the integral formation of students with a deeply human pedagogical approach that generates the quality education that current education requires.


Keywords: education; primary school teacher; school.


Date Received: 20-11-2017

Date Acceptance: 22-01-2018



La Educación Holística en el Nivel de Primaria Venezolana:

Una Visión Resiliente de la Educación



El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad abordar la educación holista en el subsistema de educación primaria desde las perspectivas de Simpson  (2010), en su obra Resiliencia Sociocultural, así mismo los aportes de Sambrano (2010), en cuanto a la Resiliencia, con el objeto de realizar una aproximación teórica de la posible vinculación de la educación holística en el subsistema de educación primaria venezolana generando una aproximación en la visión resiliente de la educación en el marco de la educación holística, que impulse una práctica docente centrada en la formación integral de los estudiantes con un acercamiento pedagógico profundamente humano que genere la educación de calidad que requiere la educación actual.


Palabras clave: educación; docente de escuela primaria; escuela.  


Fecha de Recepción: 20-11-2017

Fecha de Aceptación: 22-01-2018



1.    Introduction

The subsystem of primary education must link in its educational practice, the actors of the educational event promoting a natural relationship generating essential learning in the life of the students for their integral formation and in accordance with their personal interests as a human being.


Likewise, primary education is an ideal scenario where students acquire, construct and share knowledge through the interrelation of the other actors of the educational fact, understanding the school as an integral space of training for all its members.


On the other hand, resilience is the ability of human beings to adapt or overcome obstacles and difficulties in their lives, allowing students to acquire tools to overcome fears, despite any situation in the development of their training activities. situations and problems that daily experience in all areas of life.


Therefore, the present essay intends to carry out a theoretical review that bases the holistic practice in the elementary school, which encourages students to have resilient capacities to overcome all the barriers that exist in the educational system, especially in the subsystem of primary education, caused by the historical moment that humanity is going through as a product of globalization and current postmodernity, in which the teacher plays a leading role as mediator and facilitator of the teaching and learning process.


2. Development

2.1. Resilience and its sources

Resilience is the ability of human beings to go through situations contrary to the desired and traumatic stress in everyday life, and how the individual is able to overcome and overcome them naturally, and further on to convert them in a positive way to continue with your life normally.


For Sambrano (2010a), resilience is defined as "the ability of people to react satisfactorily to adversity" (p.17). Therefore, it is convenient to establish that all human beings can develop the ability to overcome all the obstacles of life.


According to the author, human beings especially in their role as students during the pursuit of their primary school, live various situations that in most cases can not overcome, such as: economic problems, bullying and families dysfunctional, within this context the student needs to develop skills that allow them to move forward despite the adverse circumstances they experience or are exposed to.


In addition, author states that "All human beings are exposed to adverse situations, stress, lack of love, abuse. Some people succumb, evidencing disorders and imbalance; oysters strengths of their weaknesses, assume their potential and overcome the situation" (p.17).


That is why the life of students in the Venezuelan primary education subsystem, experiences a host of adverse situations resulting from the current social crisis in the country, shortage of food, insecurity, school violence, among others affect the performance in the school and its school performance, affecting its academic success.


It is significant to note the importance of resilience in educational environments, mainly in primary education in terms of strengthening human behaviors in times of crisis, as established by Sambrano (2010b).:

Resilience is a way of looking at human behaviors from a multidisciplinary perspective that aims to improve the processes and results of human groups in the face of crises, by their holistic conception that has its maximum possibility of values and culture of society (p.20).


On the other hand, Vanistendael (1994), cited by Sambrano (2010c):

Resilience distinguishes two components: resilience versus destruction; that is, the ability to protect one's integrity under pressure; On the other hand, beyond resilience, it is the ability to forge positive life behavior despite difficult circumstances (p.20).


According to the author, Resilience is a tool that allows the protection and development of a behavior in students, where they acquire the ability to have a positive attitude in situations of stress and overcome the daily adversities in their lives.


Now, Sambrano (2010d), presents some characteristics that allow to identify resilient students, such as: 

·       Congruence between what we say and what we do.


·       Teacher training.


·       Education for a thoughtful action.


·       Education from and for a changing reality.


·       Education for the formation of the integral being.


·       Motivation and interest.


·       Cross-disciplinary and transdisciplinary approach.


·       Consistency between ends and means.


Consequently, resilient students must present certain and certain characteristics that demonstrate the development and appropriation of the sources of resilience, that allow the confrontation of daily adversities in the different contexts such as in the family, school or groups of friends, which aligns their interpersonal relationships in the interest of a harmonious environment.


2.2. The School as a factor of holistic educational practice

Simpson (2010a) points out that the school: "has the objective of educating and its members take that specific role in society, differentiated from other institutions" (p.9).


According to the author, the school represents a diverse space that should be oriented to educate all the members in order to generate the integration of their students to the current society, being the ideal place to forge the citizens that will guide the future of the future generations.


In addition, the school is the propitious space to promote strategies and strengthen the integral formation of the students with the purpose of educating in values ​​for the generations of good capable and effective citizens for the society that the country requires, that responds to the collective needs of integral development.


On the other hand, Simpson (2011a) points out that "school together with the family is the social institution that contributes to shaping identity, both personally and socially" (p.9). In this way, the family next to the school are the spaces that can provide the necessary tools for the students to develop and build their personality with themselves and their social environment.


However, accompanied by the institutional task of the school, we find the family as a social institution on which the pillars of values ​​are based on the initial and basic formation of the students, it is from the daily practice of the home where it is given form to be social with all its characteristics in the personal and collective.


On the other hand, Ehrensaf, E. and Tousignant, M. (2003), cited by Simpson (2011b), explains that:

The school is another basic source of support for the child exposed to events or a risky life environment. The school environment is the second source of security after the home and sometimes, the only one ... it is one of the institutions whose presence is more constant in the life of the child, and in modern social systems it is the only one of main development after the family (p.163).


Likewise, the author in her work of sociocultural resilience establishes that the pronoun "I" is transformed into "We" that shows the collective dimension of this capacity. Likewise, it allows locating individual wills to face them as a team of human beings, united with a determined determination. As can be seen in Figure No. 1, Sources of Sociocultural Resilience.


In effect, the sources of sociocultural resilience are based on collective work, because it raises a collective practice, where society can build a new social order, a country oriented to meet the collective needs over the individual.


Likewise, it is possible to highlight that each student contributes his individuality, in function of the joint responsibility and part of a community, institution, family or working group oriented for the common good and the satisfaction of the needs of collective formation centered in the human being.


For which, Graph No. 1, based on the sources of sociocultural resilience of Simpson (2010b), is presented in its own adaptation:


Graph No. 1. Sources of Sociocultural Resilience.


Source: Simpson (2010); Own adaptation of the Author (2017).


In the source of "We", it raises the respect of the students themselves and of others, allowing collective happiness when acts of goodwill are performed for others and there are demonstrations of mutual affection, consolidating the bonds of friendship and camaraderie.


In this regard, the source of "We" allows the students to be responsible for their actions and the consequences they have, it also offers the assurance of certainty that everything will turn out well.


In addition, in the "We can" source, it promotes the search for ways to solve problems and recognize the need to find someone to help us when we need it, consequently, provides for self-control when we feel like doing something danger or that is not right.


For this reason, in the topic of the sources of sociocultural resilience, the "We have" is observed, which promotes observes that one has in the environment people who can be trusted and who want the human being unconditionally, as well as people who show us through of his conduct the correct way to proceed.


It should be noted that the sources mentioned when developing them in the school, allow a school climate where students can develop all their abilities in harmony with their peers, applying their learning skills and interpersonal relationships with the internal and external strength of facing any situation of the lifetime. 


2.3. Holistic education as an element of educational practice resiliente

For Simpson (2010c), it establishes that Education:

it is a social and human process by which a subject completes its development, since it requires training to face adversity, compensating the instinctive information that it lacks and that allows the animals to find answers to the problematic situations that the reality imposes (p.18).


Likewise, the author indicates that the school "is the continuation of its task. That is why, of course, they are the ideal scenarios to develop the capacity to face adversity, that is, the sources of resilience par excellence" (p.18). In the same way, the school should be considered as the institution in charge of perpetuating values, generating belonging and culture in the students that allow a holistic training with resilient capacity to confront all the difficult situations of the daily life of the human being.


On the other hand, Vanistendael (2006), cited by Simpson (2011c), indicates that:

Resilience is a capacity that is built in the interaction between the individual and his environment. This capacity is built and increases throughout life, but with ups and downs and concrete forms that can be transformed over time (p.237).


According to the above, the school should be the appropriate environment where students can strengthen and develop all the skills, abilities and skills in order to overcome all the ups and downs and conflicts that will live in their lives, to achieve a teaching-learning process of according to your training interests in a healthy and friendly environment.


Therefore, allowing the inclusion of the resilient practice of the actors of the education system in a more human educational process and in accordance with the needs and reality of the current society in globalization and postmodernity that exists in the world.


For which, it can be seen in graph No. 2, which allows us to identify the elements of a holistic education that promotes the interaction of the educational fact raised from a resilient perspective.


Grafica No. 2. Holistic education from a resilient perspective.


Source: Simpson (2011), author's own adaptation (2017).


          Accordingly, education should be considered as a social fact where the human being interacts with his or her collective environment, within the framework of holistic practice starting from his interests in the formation of his abilities and skills, in order to strengthen the resilient capacities that allow to confront all the possible adversities of daily life in today's society.


To this end, education should promote the practice of training and learning generation in the human being as a fundamental element of the teaching process, with holistic methods and strategies that allow the apprehension of resilient capacities in the construction of human beings with skills, skills and capabilities for life.


Therefore, for teachers to generate a resilient educational practice, each one of them must be encouraged to think flexibly in relation to the teaching-learning process, insofar as they educate human beings with their complexity, in accordance with ( Riso, 2007, p.15), "The strength of flexible thinking is that, despite resistance and obstacles, they allow us to invent ourselves and flow with life without hurting or hurting ourselves".


3. Conclusions

     Resilience as the capacity of human beings to positively confront the adversities and crises that occur in their personal and academic life, for this reason students must strengthen their ability to overcome all limitations in order to achieve success in their formation.


Within this perspective, Education is considered as the process where students allow themselves to build and exchange their knowledge and knowledge in a holistic way, focused on their interests and training needs, full of the most precious humanistic values ​​in terms of shaping citizens what current society requires.


In this same perspective, the school and the family as the main social institutions play an important role in the education of the citizens that we need to confront the challenges and challenges of this century and the historical moment that the educational world is going through.


It is important to emphasize that, the family plays an important role in the education of future generations together with the role played by teachers in primary school, which must be a mediator and facilitator of teaching-learning processes centered on human beings, sensitive, cooperative, and in particular the educational event mediated by the love of others.


On the other hand, a holistic vision must be created in the teaching praxis to meet the challenges prepared by the students of the 21st century, a globalized educational community with a technological tendency, with a number of diverse interests, which allows immediate access to the information and knowledge.


In addition, the teacher is invited to live and expand love in all areas of the school, especially their relationship with students. (Sepúlveda, 2008, p.173), "Love is the food of the soul", therefore, our students are instruments that life puts in the path of teachers to give and receive love, as a sublime practice of education.


4. References

Riso, W. (2007). El poder del pensamiento flexible. De una mente rígida a una mente libre y abierta al cambio. Bogotá, Colombia: Grupo Editorial Norma, págs. 26-78.


Sambrano, J. (2010a,b,c,d). Resiliencia, transformación positiva de la adversidad. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Alfa. 1er reimpresión, págs. 15-98.


Sepúlveda, M. (2008). El buen vivir. Venezuela: Editorial Ediciones B, Venezuela S.A., págs. 59-78.


Simpson, M. (2011a,b,c). Resiliencia en el aula, un camino posible. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Bonum, Cuarta Edición, págs. 19-43.


Simpson, M. (2010a,b,c). Resiliencia sociocultural, Del “Yo puedo” al “Nosotros podemos”. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Bonum, págs. 15-175.



César Enrique López Arrillaga

e-mail: prof.cesarlopez@gmail.com


Born in La Guaira, Venezuela. Bachelor of Education, Mention: Cultural Development of the Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez (UNESR), Magister Scientiarum in Higher Education of the Universidad Nacional Experimental de la Fuerza Armada (UNEFA), Doctorate of the Education Sciences program of the Universidad Latinoamericana y del Caribe (ULAC), teacher of primary education of the Unidad Educativa Nacional Bolivariana Guaicaipuro.


The content of this manuscript is disseminated under a Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International


- Original Version in Spanish -

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29394/Scientific.issn.2542-2987.2018.