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Intelligences Developed by the Student Chess Player


Authors: Yuraima Margelis Matos De Rojas

Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez, UNESR



Maryelin Lorena Vethencourt Godoy

Universidad Nacional Experimental “Rafael María Baralt”, UNERMB



Magda Lisbeth Peña Briceño

Universidad Nacional Experimental “Rafael María Baralt”, UNERMB



Magda Violeta Briceño

Universidad Nacional Experimental “Rafael María Baralt”, UNERMB


Trujillo, Venezuela



To strengthen cognitive development in students requires the use of innovative, creative and formative strategies that allow it to achieve, being one of the didactic strategies chess. For what was proposed as research purpose: Identify the intelligences developed by the student athlete of the Sports Talent Education Unit that play chess, to suggest some recommendations that can be put into practice in educational institutions. Methodologically it was approached from the qualitative paradigm through a phenomenological method that reveals the reality from the experiences and experiences of the social actors. Six key students of the institution were chess players, to whom an open interview was applied to obtain the necessary information, which was systematized to extract the categories, codifications and triangulate the information. As results, it was obtained that the students develop the intelligences: logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial and visual, as the intrapersonal during the game of chess and in the learning processes. Configured in categories, analyzed and interpreted from the voices of social actors, theorists and researchers. Suggesting some recommendations that can be put into practice to strengthen the intelligences in the student.


Keywords: intelligence; teaching method; educational game.


Date Received: 21-11-2017

Date Acceptance: 22-01-2018



Inteligencias que Desarrolla el Estudiante Jugador de Ajedrez



Para fortalecer el desarrollo cognitivo en los estudiantes se requiere el uso de estrategias innovadoras, creativas y formativas que le permitan lograrlo, siendo una de las estrategias didácticas el ajedrez. Por lo que se planteó como propósito de investigación: Identificar las inteligencias que desarrolla el estudiante atleta de la Unidad Educativa de Talentos Deportivos que juegan ajedrez, para sugerir algunas recomendaciones que puedan ser puesta en práctica en las instituciones educativas. Metodológicamente se abordó desde el paradigma cualitativo a través de método fenomenológico que permite develar la realidad desde las experiencias y vivencias de los actores sociales. Constituyéndose como actores clave seis estudiantes de dicha institución jugadores de ajedrez, a quienes se les aplicó una entrevista abierta para obtener la información necesaria, la cual se sistematizó para extraer las categorías, codificaciones y triangular la información. Como resultados se obtuvo que los estudiantes desarrollan las inteligencias: lógica-matemática, la lingüística, la espacial y visual, como la intrapersonal durante el juego de ajedrez y en los procesos de aprendizaje. Configuradas en categorías, analizadas e interpretadas desde las voces de los actores sociales, teóricos e investigadores. Sugiriendo algunas recomendaciones que pueden ser puesta en práctica para fortalecer las inteligencias en el estudiante. 


Palabras clave: inteligencia; método de enseñanza; juego educativo.


Fecha de Recepción: 21-11-2017

Fecha de Aceptación: 22-01-2018



1. Introduction

In recent years, emphasis has been placed on the need for quality education, where creative, innovative, constructivist, collaborative, motivating and meaningful learning is strengthened. Learning that leads to build knowledge, to the development of skills and useful skills for life. To stop this, it is necessary to use strategies or pedagogical resources that contribute to the development of the student's intellectual abilities, which lead him to solve problems, elaborate proposals and find solutions in any context in which he develops.


In this sense, it is about promoting the cognitive development of the student, so that chess comes to constitute a strategy, as White (2007a) refers: "to organize the cognitive sphere of the human being; that is, chess allows us to develop skills to solve problematic situations, make conjectures, check hypotheses and pose new problems" (p.81). For this reason, chess has a marked educational character on the personality of the human being, in particular in the students, who in their educational actions can demonstrate their abilities in the different situations that are presented to them.


From this perspective, it can be pointed out that through the practice of chess the intelligences of the learner can be developed, using this sport discipline as a pedagogical strategy in the teaching-learning process. For Blanco, Fernández, Mayor and Martos (2010): chess can be an excellent tool to educate and improve the emotional intelligence of those who practice it.


It is worth mentioning that the intelligences according to Gardner (cited in López, 2006a): are "the ability to solve problems and create products that are important in the cultural context or in a specific commune" (page 9). In this sense, the premise is to value education based on the recognition that in the educational process, intelligence must be strengthened as a capacity that develops when stimulated by cognitive strategies. Author who proposes eight multiple intelligences that the human being possesses, located in different regions of the brain, which are: Logic-Mathematical, Verbal-Linguistic, Visual-Space, Musical, Corporal, Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Naturalistic.


With this, the existence of diverse intelligences is recognized, which can interact and enhance each other. For López (2006b): "multiple intelligences do not work in isolation, any social role that is assumed requires a combination of skills; because intelligences work together to solve situations" (p.11). It is necessary for teachers to appropriate various strategies to promote their development.


So White (2007b): indicates "in educational research, one of the strategies that contributes to the development of intelligence is chess, as well as to exercise personal qualities of each individual, at the same time helps you solve personal problems and behavior" (p.28). In this scenario, Pérez (2012): confirms that the practice of chess allows the mind to exercise due to the combination of cognitive processes, leading to a better development of people, enhancing their abilities and skills in decision making.


However, Blanco (2007c): states that "in the educational process the practice of chess is seen as limitations framed in old schemes, usually associating chess to achieve academically logical-mathematical processes reclined in human reasoning" (p.58). Despite the relevance of the game of chess as a strategy for the development of intelligences in students, and that has been proposed by the Ministry of Popular Power for Education from the first educational levels, it is still observed in different educational institutions, that most schools and high schools do not use it as a strategy for the development of cognitive skills and, least of all, for the development of intelligence in the student.


Appreciation, which is confirmed by the study of Altuve (2015): who carried out an investigation in the Pre-vocational Basic Education Unit Agua Clara, where he states that chess is not applied as an ecological strategy for the development of multiple intelligences in students of primary education, thus squandering the benefits it offers as an innovative, creative and transformative strategy.


From the stated point of view, it became necessary to place the Sports Talent Education Unit located in the San Luis sector. Lower part of Avenida La Feria in the municipality of Valera, where the students of said institution practice different sports; considering for the study the student athletes who practice chess, and thus, identify the intelligences they manifest when they play chess and its implementation in the different areas of knowledge.


In this sense, it was proposed as a research purpose: Identify the intelligences developed by the student athlete when playing chess, in order to suggest some recommendations that can be put into practice in educational institutions, and thus strengthen the development of the intelligences relate them to the different areas of knowledge. Study that is inserted in the Research Line of Investigators in Social Action, IAS, UNESR, Núcleo Valera.


2. Theoretical fundament

          As theoretical foundations, the substantive categories of intelligence, multiple intelligences and chess as a playful strategy were addressed, which are described below.


2.1. The intelligence

The term intelligence has been defined by various authors, who place it from the psychological field, from biology, among others; so that it has been strengthened with a firm epistemological foundation and the structuring of appropriate and sensitive methodologies to the more specifically human, such as freedom, creativity, conscience, values ​​and feelings. For Gardner (1994a): intelligence is the ability of the human being to solve problems or develop relevant products for a culture or context. In this sense, intelligence is conceived as the general capacity of the individual to understand and face their environment, thus generating the combination of skills and factors that are associated in a specific way to shape the overall fitness.


Considering the scope of study, from education, refer to Jiménez (cited in Vethencourt, 2017a): who conceptualizes more from the ability of the human being to relate knowledge, solve situations in the personal and educational situations, encompassing different cognitive processes in the constant interaction with itself, with the other and the environment.


From this point of view, it is emphasized that intelligence is not permanent, it is alterable; in other words, it is that each person does not possess the same level of intelligence with which they are born and, intelligence is not unitary, it can manifest itself in different forms; that is to say, there is not a single one but multiple intelligences, distinct and independent. In the same way, intelligence is considered as a potential that can be linked to the personal, collaborative and social spheres. Hence the theory of multiple intelligences, as a counterweight to the paradigm of a single intelligence.


2.2. Multiple intelligences

Multiple intelligences were developed by Gardner (1994b): based on the capacities of the individual and on the importance of intelligence as the ability to solve everyday problems, generate others, create products and offer services within their cultural context. That is to say, that all people have the potential to exercise a set of intellectual faculties, although they do not perform them in the same way. In this sense, it is noteworthy that the tendency to solve problems must also be associated with the cultural environment, because although they have these capacities to a certain degree, people differ in the degree of capacity because of the combination that makes them according to the opportunities that gives you the context.


For his part Lopez (2006c): argues that "intelligence is not seen as something unitary or grouping different specific capabilities with a destination at the level of generality, but as a set of multiple intelligences, different and independent" (p.10). From this conception, the notion of intelligence is enabled as the set of skills, talents and mental capacities that enable the necessary tools that all human beings can use to learn, to solve problems and to create. As for Prieto and Ballester (2009a): they assume that "intelligences are functional and manifest in different ways in different contexts" (p.21). In this sense, the theory of multiple intelligences provides a solid basis on which to identify and develop a broad spectrum of skills in each person.


In order to present the epistemological vision of the eight types of intelligences proposed by Gardner, what is stated by López (2006d) is taken into account:

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: based on symbols, allows to calculate, resolution of problems, representation of objects and the distinction of geometries in space.


Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence: consists in the ability to think in words and to use language to express and appreciate complex meanings. In this sense, the individual effectively uses words orally or in writing, to communicate through different means.


Visual-Space Intelligence: provides the ability to think, visualize internal and external images to create lines, shapes that represent real objects.


Musical Intelligence: it is evident in individuals sensitive to melody, rhythm, tone and harmony. In this way, it is considered that musical intelligence is the basis to produce and appreciate songs, remember melodies or simply enjoy music.


Body-Kinesthetic Intelligence: allows the individual to manipulate objects and perfect physical abilities. It is characterized by the ability to use the body in various ways, to work on motor skills.


Intrapersonal Intelligence: refers to the ability of a person to build an accurate perception of himself and use it for the creation of personal and social happiness.


Interpersonal Intelligence: is the ability to understand others and interact effectively with them.


Naturalist Intelligence: consists of observing the models of nature, in identifying, classifying objects and understanding the natural systems created by man.


2.3. Didactic strategy

As can be seen, there are different intelligences that each student can develop, everything depends on the different strategies that the teacher encourages for its implementation by the student, so Castellanos and Castro (2017): indicate that the teaching strategies are the that should facilitate the teacher for the development of the intellectual processes of the student, leading to the acquisition of skills and skills to transfer knowledge to the reality or context where it operates. In this sense, chess is considered as a didactic strategy that can help the student to develop different intelligences.


2.4. The game of chess

          The game for Bello (2007): constitutes a voluntary activity, which takes place within certain fixed time and place limits, according to the established rules. For the purpose of the study will focus on the competitive sports game, which according to the author, consists of the exercise of intelligence and demonstrative action, aimed at obtaining individual or collective results to achieve the established goal.


In this sense, chess is seen as a sports game for Blanco (2007d): it is a science game, due to the intellectual and logical-mathematical reasoning prevailing in the execution of a game and in the proposed problem solving. In this sense, it is related to the observation capacity, the use of techniques and methods for the approach and decision making. For Gardner (1994c): "probably the study and practice of chess facilitates the stimulation of logical-mathematical intelligence, since it is the ability to think, calculate and manage logical reasoning" (p.64). Which is related to logical thinking, concentration and visual memory.


From this perspective, it can be said that, during a game of chess, the student is placed in the position of solving a problem, where he observes, compares, classifies, analyzes, organizes ideas, synthesizes, makes decisions and executes them; both chess players and students of another specialty, using the board and their figures can establish, explain geometric or spatial relationships of a logical-mathematical nature.


Likewise, chess is a work of art, which according to Blanco (2007e): "between two minds that need to balance two different and sometimes contradictory goals: to win and produce beauty" (p.29). In this scenario, we can not forget that chess is played between two people, whose confrontation could generate the possibility of conceiving beauty, while perceiving positions and combinations of movements that generate a strong aesthetic impression both on its producers and in the specialists and fans.


3. Methodological Course

The present study is based on the qualitative paradigm, from the phenomenological ideology, because it seeks to study a reality, whose essence will depend on the way in which it is lived and perceived by the subject, an internal, personal, unique and proper reality of every human being. From this approach, the study was approached from the phenomenological method, which for Martinez (2011): "Phenomenology is the study of phenomena as they are experienced, experienced and perceived by man" (page 167). In this sense, phenomenology emerges as a need to explain the essence of things, that is, it is a method that observes and explains the experience in order to know it accurately and, in this way, find the truth of the phenomena. The methodological route followed was:

Previous stage, which allowed to clarify the assumptions that determined the course of the investigation, visiting different institutions where chess was practiced, selecting the Educational Unit of Sports Talents, of the Valera Municipality, Trujillo State.


Descriptive stage, the objective of this stage was to achieve a description of the phenomenon under study, the permission and authorization for the study, as well as the choice of interview technique to obtain the information, initially carrying out an entry protocol, socialized and refined to make the conversation more effective, being recorded, prior permission requested. Allowing information to structure the script of the interview or discussion based on the purpose of study.


Structural stage, consisted in the study of the descriptions contained in the script, allowing the interview or face-to-face conversation to obtain the necessary information, it was recorded on a video recorder, and the notes in a note notebook that allowed recording some appreciations of the researchers.


Stage discussion of the results, information was systematized by key actors, who were assigned a code to protect their privacy, then extract the emerged categories and triangulate from the voices of the social actors, confront or support from the theorists and the interpretation of the researchers based on the perceived reality.


Key actors, according to Tapella (cited in Vethencourt, 2017b): they are usually considered as those that can significantly influence (positively or negatively of an intervention) or are very important for a situation to manifest itself in a certain way. That is, they are those people whose participation is essential for the achievement of purposes, objectives and goals of the study. For the purpose of the research, the key players were six (6) students from the Educational Unit of Sports Talent Valera Trujillo state where the study was conducted, who were selected according to the following criteria:

·       Be a student of the Institution.


·       Be a player in the chess discipline.


·       Academic index from good to excellent.


4. Results

Among the categories emerged about the intelligences expressed by the students through chess, the mathematical-mathematical, the linguistic, the visual-spatial and the intrapersonal were appreciated, which are described below, based or confronted by the theoreticians and the researchers.


4.1. Logical-mathematical intelligence, fue una de las categorías que prevaleció desde el discurso de los estudiantes, la cual se refleja en las subcategorías surgidas, tales como: resolver problemas, razonar, calcular, y relación matemática, tal como se aprecian a continuación:

          Solve problems, according to FR expressed "the studies are much easier for me, thanks to the practice of chess, because during the training we solve problems", likewise, YG said "I do very well in the studies, I like each class and it makes me easy to understand it, because as a practical chess, because here the math is given a lot and it does not cost me like in any other subject". Similarly, OM expresses "chess is a game of concentration and in practice it helps me solve problems, for example, mathematics is based on problems then here it helps us solve them and it is easier to understand them, to capture faster being in the class".


As can be seen, through chess, the student athlete develops his ability to solve problems, while allowing him to maintain a greater concentration, relating his knowledge with school activities developed in mathematics. Which for Antunes (2001a): the mathematical logic is very important, since it allows to solve even problems that the human being has never faced using only his intelligence. Which leads him to make decisions when making a play.


Calculate, was another of the skills that participants expressed from the game of chess, as expressed by SV "I am doing well in studies because chess helps me think and analyze when I do the calculations, it allows me to add, subtract and even multiply". In the same way, JP "Mathematics is easy because when I train chess we see problems of combinations and tactics, that helps me solve problems of mathematical calculations".


In this regard, Antunes (2001b): indicates that learning mathematics, physics or chemistry "is very difficult", as expressed by most students of all educational levels; what is contradicted with the points made by the key actors of this research, who expressed that with the practice of chess it is easier to understand mathematics, since they perform the operations that they apply during the game of chess.


          Reason, subcategory that emerges from the voices of student athletes, when referring SV "Chess helps me to reason the way in which I must make the play". Reason implicit in the process of calculating and allowing the participant to solve problems effectively. In this case, reasoning is an essential part in the development of logic-mathematical intelligence proposed by Gardner (1994d): "in his theory of multiple intelligences that defines logical-mathematical intelligence as the ability to use numbers effectively and in a reason properly using logical-mathematical thinking".


Mathematical relationship, so in the voice of YG "I say that chess helps us in all subjects because it is a sport of great concentration and this makes us pay attention to the classes." For his part JP said, "I relate chess with mathematics because when I'm a pawn, I can turn into other pieces with higher punctuation validity, that is, the pieces are multiplied as for example the pawn that is worth a point when crowning the I change for a lady who is worth ten points and a multiple of 1 for 10. She also subtracts and adds them: when I capture several pieces my opponent rests and sums it at the same time if I am winning or losing both pieces and their points value".


For its part, ES said "I relate chess to mathematics because numbers are used", likewise, YG said "I relate it to mathematics and geometry, because it is what is used in everything since they are added together , numbers are subtracted and multiplied, as well as the black and white squares of chess are even and the board is divided into rows represented in numbers from one to eight". For FR "Chess does help as a strategy for studies because it serves as a tool for mental development. Likewise, it helps us in all subjects such as physics, chemistry, mathematics and commerce because that is where the numbers are given, unlike the other subjects".


Considering the indicated expressions, Blanco (2007f): refers to the relationship with one of the objectives of constructivism, which is the construction of knowledge. For what it raises, that the subject of the logic-mathematics, is lent so that the student can realize the relations between the different proportions, creating new forms to solve problems in different branches like in: mathematics, physics, chemistry, social sciences, as in chess and, of course, real life.


From the subcategories emerged in what corresponds to the logic-mathematics, Lopez (2006e): notes that this intelligence "sees the ability to use numbers to calculate and describe, use mathematical concepts to make conjectures, apply mathematics in personal daily life, and solve problems in design and modeling" (p.15). In this sense, relating these approaches to chess, a player of this sport is endowed with logical-mathematical intelligence, specifically when talking about the process of solving problems, calculate and reason, leading him to make decisions from the various variants that are You are presented in a game.


Intelligence that at the same time leads to mental development as expressed by students, which for Gutiérrez (2005), is the acquisition of motor skills and manual skills, of the faculty of speech, intelligence, study and the ability to solve one's own problems and set the mood in the social environment. In this sense, through the practice of chess, student athletes put into practice logical-mathematical intelligence, to solve problems, reason and calculate in a game of chess, allowing them a good mental development.


4.2. Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence, was another of the categories that emerged in the socio-educational actors participating in this study, which according to Gardner (1994e): is related to the ability to use words effectively when writing or speaking them. In what FR said "Chess is related to letters, at the same time with language and literature, since when playing games are scored in a chess language". 


Likewise, OM said "Chess in the academic part helps me in language and literature specifically when doing analysis and synthesis on the subject concentrating as in chess that you need a lot of concentration when you are going to read and study the books of openings that one plays", in the same way, for JP indicated: "Chess helps me as a strategy in language and literature since I have improved a lot in reading, because in chess you have to read many books about openings and, in writing because when you play a game you have to score in a chess language".


As can be seen, the students refer that chess helps them in the area of ​​language and literature, in the process of reading and writing, in the analysis and synthesis that they must carry out in order to prepare and carry out the chess moves or tournaments. Gardner (cited in White, 2007g): when he argued that chess practices could be closely associated with linguistic intelligence. From this point of view, it can be said that the linguistic-verbal category is closely linked to chess, because they relate the material of language and literature with chess, since in these environments they are linguistically rich.


It also provides an environment where they feel safe enough to express, explain their ideas, share their opinions or anecdotes such as when they played badly or in a game and thus contribute to the increase of their self-esteem. Acosta, Rojas and Medina (2011): pose that linguistic-verbal intelligence is the ability to think in words and to use language to communicate, understand, express and appreciate complex meanings. It is noteworthy that within the game of chess, there is a chess language, which is the annotation of the algebraic system, this is when you are playing a game is scored the moves, both themselves and their opponent.


4.3. Visual-Space Intelligence, being another one of the intelligences perceived by the student athletes, because YG pointed out "Chess helps me in artistic because there they represent figures, drawings, colors and shapes of the pieces on the board". From this perspective, the author Prieto and Ballester (2009b): state that visual-spatial intelligence is what includes the sensitivity of color, line, shape, space and the relationships that exist between these elements. Includes the ability to visualize, graphically represent visual or spatial ideas.


          For his part, Blanco (2007h): states that "spatial representation in the game of chess is developed with figures of different colors that move and interact on the flat surface called the board" (page 62). Likewise, the author suggests that it allows the player to put into practice his capacity for global perception (holistic) of situations of abstract reasoning and spatial orientation, imagination, creation and inventiveness.


From this point of view, the chess player puts into practice the creativity to mentally transfer the pieces from one place to another, the player visualizes the position and color of the pieces on the board in a space in the present, then analyzes that position with its possible moves of variants, sub-variants that can be given in order to achieve the best moves moving spatially the position in the present towards the future, in order to perform the best moves, and thus win the game. 


4.4. Intrapersonal Intelligence, which emerged in the voice of SV, who said: "I feel good, excited and focused thinking about the play I'm going to play and the combinations". In the same way, for OM said: "Well when I play chess I feel excited, but at the same time nervous, because you have to start playing a new game from the beginning, it gets longer and you never know what you can get to happen".


From these expressions, emotions are reflected as an elementary part of the human being, so López (2006f): indicates that "emotional intelligence has to do with us and with our inner world: Inherent capacities to which we resort to understand ourselves ourselves and other people; to imagine planning, and solving problems especially emotional ones" (p.95). Similarly the Serrano (2003): notes that intrapersonal intelligence is the knowledge and ability to adapt their own ways of acting from knowledge. It includes having an accurate image of oneself, being aware of inner moods, intentions, motivations, temperaments and desires.


In this sense it can be said that intrapersonal intelligence is the one that has access to one's own feelings and the ability to understand intimate emotions, to the knowledge of one's own strengths and weaknesses, this premise has a lot to do with that of a chess player in as to the understanding of his emotions, because he is ready to understand when he loses or wins a game, likewise, he knows when he has a weakness and strength. Which leads him to have a personal domain when playing chess.


It was seen that the chess player has the ability to meditate when he is playing a game, he has a personal discipline in terms of his life and training, he keeps his composure with his opponent when he wins or loses a game. Position that they put into practice during the educational process.


5. As a way of closing

From the study conducted and considering the purpose of research, it can be noted that students who practice chess have the facility to develop logical-mathematical intelligences, which helps them to solve problems, to reason and calculate when they are playing a game of chess, developing mental processes that transfer in other areas of knowledge. Likewise, it allows them to develop the ability to use words effectively when writing or speaking, when they write a game with the algebraic system and analyze it with their opponents; thus strengthening reading and writing.


On the other hand, they develop the ability of spatial representation, in the game of chess, leading them to perceive in a holistic way the plays, analyzing each event from the different moves that can be made. In the same way, it has the ability to relate the figures and colors when making the displacements on the board. Likewise, intrapersonal intelligence, as the ability to access their own thoughts and feelings in each play.


From the findings unveiled from the voices of the key actors of the study, it is necessary to recommend to teachers of the various educational institutions, to put into practice the strategy of chess as a tool to strengthen the intelligences of their students, both in practice of sport as in its academic performance. Let them prepare and look for people to guide them in how to learn and teach chess in the learning spaces.


Request among students those who dominate chess so that they feel motivated to teach-learn-play and relate to others, academic content. Likewise, to conform with their students a club or chess center, which leads them to relate, to recreate as they learn to solve problems, to share and compete, leading them to make decisions in each play, to demonstrate their knowledge, skills and experience from the preparation and training. It is about helping to develop intellectual capacity, such as attention, reasoning, analysis, synthesis, creativity, among others.


6. References

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Altuve, S. (2015). Ajedrez como Estrategia Ecológica dirigido al Docente para el desarrollo de las Inteligencias Múltiples en los Estudiantes. Trabajo Especial de Grado de Maestría. Rubio, Venezuela: Universidad Pedagógica Experimental Libertador.


Antunes, C. (2001a,b). Estimular las inteligencias múltiples: qué son, cómo se manifiestan, cómo funcionan. (2da. Edición). Madrid, España: Narcea.


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Blanco, U. (2007a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h). ¿Por qué el Ajedrez en las escuelas?. Caracas, Venezuela: Ediciones CO-BO.


Blanco, J., Fernández, J., Mayor, R., & Martos, M. (2010). La Educación Emocional en el ajedrez. Propuestas para aplicar en los centros educativos. España: Associació Paretana D'escacs. Recuperado de: http://www.paretana.com/zip/articulos/La%20educaci%F3n%20emocional%20en%20el%20ajedrez.pdf


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Gardner, H. (1994a,b,c,d,e,f). Inteligencias Múltiples. La teoría en la práctica. Barcelona, España: Paidós.


Gutiérrez, F. (2005). Teorías del Desarrollo Cognitivo. Buenos Aires: McGraw-Hill.


López, A. (2006a,b,c,d,e,f). Inteligencias Múltiples Cómo Descubrirlas y Desarrollarlas. 1era. Edición. Lima, Perú: Ediciones Mirbet.


Martínez, M. (2011). Comportamiento Humano, Nuevos Métodos de Investigación. México: Trillas.


Pérez, M. (2012). Inteligencia y ajedrez: estructura y contexto de una relación familiar. España: Punto Rojo Libros S.L. ISBN: 978.84-15561-80-4, págs. 350.


Prieto, M., & Ballester, P. (2009a,b). Las Inteligencias Múltiples. Diferentes formas de enseñar y aprender. Madrid, España: Pirámide.


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Vethencourt, M. (2017a,b). Uso del ajedrez como estrategia en el desarrollo de la inteligencia del estudiante. Tesis Doctoral en Educación. Cabimas, Venezuela: UNERMB.



Yuraima Margelis Matos De Rojas

e-mail: yuraimatos01@gmail.com


Born in Venezuela. Bachelor in Integral Education, Mathematical Mention, Master in Educational Sciences. Mention Research Teaching. Magister in Technology and Educational Design, Master in Education Robinsoniana, Dra. In Educational Sciences. Research professor at the Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez, (UNESR) Nucleus Valera, Edo. Trujillo (Retired). Coordinator of the Research Line: Investigators in Social Action (IAS), Facilitator in methodology courses, Seminar on research, Values, Community Service, Research Project, Basic education administration, Ethics and values ​​in research, educational management, among other courses, in the Universities: Simón Rodríguez, Valle del Momboy, Rafael María Baralt (Specialty, Masters and Doctorate). Jury evaluator and tutor of Special Work of Degree and Thesis, Evaluator of promotion works, arbitrated articles in national and international journals. Currently a member of PEII, LEVEL B.



Maryelin Lorena Vethencourt Godoy

e-mail: mayerajedrez@gmail.com


Born in Trujillo, Venezuela. Graduate in Integral Education, Mathematical Area, Master in Management of Basic Education, Student of the Doctorate in Education of the Universidad Nacional Experimental “Rafael María Baralt”. National Chess Teacher I currently work in U.E. Sports Talent Trujillo State. Professor of the UNEFA Núcleo Zulia, President of the Trujillo Association of Chess and State Trainer Trujillo, Facilitator of workshops and arbitration of Chess.



Magda Lisbeth Peña Briceño

e-mail: bmagdaunica@hotmail.com


Born in Trujillo, Venezuela. Graduate in Integral Education, Graduate in Preschool Education, Master in Administration of Basic Education. PhD student at the Universidad Experimental “Rafael María Baralt”. I am currently working in the U.E. José Gregorio Hernández.



Magda Violeta Briceño

e-mail: bmagda@hotmail.com.ar


Born in Trujillo, Venezuela. Bachelor's Degree in Biology, Bachelor's Degree in Early Childhood Education, Master's Degree in Basic Education Administration. PhD student at the Universidad Experimental “Rafael María Baralt”. I am currently working as a director at the U.E. José Gregorio Hernández.


The content of this manuscript is disseminated under a Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International


- Original Version in Spanish -

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29394/Scientific.issn.2542-2987.2018.