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Axiological Historical Look of the Educational Speech of the Professional of the Bioanalysis


Authors: Doris Coromoto Pérez De Abreu

Universidad de los Andes Núcleo Universitario Rafael Rangel, NURR


Trujillo, Venezuela


Carol Del Carmen Terán González

Universidad Nacional Experimental “Rafael María Baralt”, UNERMB


Trujillo, Venezuela


María Inez Albarracín

Universidad Nacional Experimental “Rafael María Baralt”, UNERMB


Táchira, Venezuela



          This study sought to approach the axiological theoretical reality of the formative discourse of the professional of Bioanalysis from the social praxis. For this, it was started from certain sections and processes within the research that surrounded the present objective: To construct theoretical approaches to the formative discourse from the axiological components for the professionals of the Bioanalysis in the social praxis of the University Hospital of Valera "Dr. Pedro Emilio Carrillo" (HUVPEC), Valera state Trujillo. The explanation that required the transcendence of this research had its basis from the relationship and interaction between the researcher and the researched, where representations were established to build a theoretical model from the axiological theoretical reality of the formative discourse of the professional of Bioanalysis from the praxis Social. As for theoretical argumentation, it was developed as a thematic unit from the axiological components and the training discourse of the professional of Bioanalysis. The hermeneutics, represented by Hans-Georg Gadamer, constitutes the methodological aspect that led the paths of this study. The final reflections of the work concluded that all change begins with a vision and a decision to take action, considering that in the social and transcendental psycho-biological center of the man of the XXI century is diversity, in terms of ideas and idealisms, values, forms of behavior, of being and of thinking. This condition can be used as a tool to find meaning in knowing, having and knowing how to do.


Keywords: speeches; training; professional.


Date Received: 30-12-2016

Date Acceptance: 11-04-2017



Mirada Histórica Axiológica del Discurso Formativo del Profesional del Bioanálisis



Este estudio buscó aproximarse a la realidad teórico axiológico del discurso formativo del profesional del Bioanálisis desde la praxis social. Para ello, se partió de ciertos apartados y procesos dentro de la investigación que circundaron al presente objetivo: Construir aproximaciones teóricas del discurso formativo desde los componentes axiológicos para los profesionales del Bioanálisis en la praxis social del Hospital Universitario de Valera “Dr. Pedro Emilio Carrillo” (HUVPEC), Valera estado Trujillo. La explicación que requirió la trascendencia de esta investigación tuvo su basamento desde la relación e interacción entre el investigador y lo investigado, donde se establecieron representaciones para construir un modelo teórico a partir de la realidad teórico axiológico del discurso formativo del profesional del Bioanálisis desde la praxis social. En cuanto a la argumentación teórica, se desarrolló como unidad temática desde los componentes axiológicos y el discurso de formación del profesional del Bioanálisis. La hermenéutica, representada por Hans-Georg Gadamer, constituye el aspecto metodológico que encausó los senderos de este estudio. Las reflexiones finales del trabajo se concluyeron que todo cambio comienza con una visión y una decisión de emprender la acción, considerando que en el centro psico-biológico social y trascendental del hombre del siglo XXI se encuentra la diversidad, en cuanto a ideas e idealismos, valores, formas de comportamiento, de ser y de pensar. Esta condición puede ser utilizada como herramienta para encontrar sentido al saber, al tener y al saber hacer.


Palabras clave: discurso; formación; profesional.


Fecha de Recepción: 30-12-2016

Fecha de Aceptación: 11-04-2017



1.    By way of introduction

With the advent of the knowledge society, human beings are involved in a context of an educated society, in which their learning constitutes the most important instrument of defense and vital security to orient themselves in the social system in which they are immersed. However, it is important to point out that it is not enough to increase the knowledge to fulfill a social mission, it is necessary to concatenate them to a process of sensitization, transformation and valorization of the environment. This process as a social interpretation has as basic and operative postulates the social relevance and the occupational relevance as well as being conceived as the way to promote changes through a continuous development of the social being. From this perspective, education plays an important role in cognitive, intellectual and educational development in the individual, as well as in the family and in society.


The educational process is fulfilled through the different educational levels, guaranteeing, with this, its continuity throughout the life of the individual through a process of permanent education, being this a modality that allows to produce and use knowledge that corresponds to the different moments of physical, biological, psychic, cultural, social and historical development, in successive periods where each one includes the previous one to create the aptitude, capacity and competence conditions that allow him to respond and participate actively in the transformation of the society in which lives.


In this context, we must rethink the bioanalysis of the 21st century; reconfiguration of their axiological values ​​based on the new realities of the professional, especially based on their profile, being an ethical requirement for every professional in function of the need to update "continuously" their knowledge, skills and abilities to put them service of citizens, where the professional has understood and internalized the importance of having a humanistic and integrating ethical vision in the health of the human being, as well as a relationship with the community, being able to recognize the social commitment that has his profession and the invaluable contribution that has the same in the solution of community problems through the promotion of health and the prevention of diseases.


To face this commitment, the bioanalyst. besides the theoretical knowledge, the component of practical activities and the development of techniques that constitute the central axis of his profession, he requires a humanistic and social formation; to achieve this, an emergent training discourse is needed from the university whose approach must be based on the development of its values, committed to health promotion programs, thus assuming its role in social praxis, through its active participation in the process scientific, socio cultural and union of their profession.


In this framework of ideas, it is considered that the role of the bioanalyst, like that of other health professionals, can not be isolated from the social structure or the current health system, therefore, the training of this professional should be directed to raise awareness, solve social, technological, scientific and health problems in the community, thus achieving the training of a new professional, through the axiological values ​​in their social practice as a way to adapt and update the new working profiles as a result of the transformations that have taken place in the productive world, the new employment reality, the scientific and technological development, its historicity, social political and socio-economic knowledge to the epistemological and interpretative of the being.


Being these socio-political bases, the economic models and the existing educational schemes and projects will allow both teachers and students in the health sector to provide a new citizen awareness with critical judgments and thought structures that allow them to transform information into knowledge, the good exercise of their profession and to understand the reason for the crisis in the health sector, the problem of reconfiguring their skills based on the realities of the professional profile and the need for emerging discourses from the perspective of men and with training content relevant.


The paradigms emerge in today's world, they play to mythologize the different human spaces, spaces that are part of the quality of life; These contexts are education, health, technology, that is, the universe of knowledge from different currents; Now, for the present study, the health sector will be the source of enrichment for research. Within the area of ​​health, different professional micro-worlds are manifested, but for the research subject, the bioanalysis professionals will be the social actors from which the production to be developed was nurtured.


2. Ethical-axiological history that surrounds the bioanalysis professional

  The nature of professional training has evolved over the years in close relation with social changes, with the role of work in society and with the differentiation of types of work; hence, it requires highly trained professionals, trained for life, work and to face the vertiginous changes of society; On the other hand, educational institutions, which must be in line with these transformations, must offer a wide range of training and strengthening opportunities, promoting processes of permanent improvement in the quality of training, with the formulation of profiles and the curricular bases, defining professional competences as standards to all those professionals who, having completed a university career and in the exercise of their profession, wish to broaden or deepen their area of ​​action to contribute their knowledge to the development of the country.


  However, a decade later a large number of professionals graduated from the University Education System find that most of their skills, abilities and knowledge are insufficient to maintain or advance within the labor structures, or better yet, to get involved and engage in a active with the community. This rethinking leads us to the formation of a new professional, through the axiological elements that surround the values ​​as a way to adapt and update the new working profiles as a result of the transformations occurred in the productive world, the new employment reality, the scientific and technological development, its political and socio-economic social historicity to the epistemological knowledge.


  Taking into account these premises, Bermúdez (2006: 37), raises:

All accelerated changes in values and, therefore, in society, constitute a challenge for any existing ethics, therefore, a new way of doing ethics is required, and this is, precisely, bioethics as the ethic of life , with its interdisciplinary nature and its role in the definition and identification of problems, its methodology to deal with them and the spaces it offers for reflection and responsible decision-making.


          From these statements, bioanalysis professionals are not only a delimitation of knowledge, but social actors representing interests and values, resistant to changes that may affect them and of course, this is the case in the health field. The first thing to assume in the health personnel are the attitudes and values, their understanding of that world and the attitudes of the work scenario, as well as the intervention methodologies.


The bioanalyst is always restricted to the analytical area, the basis of the career, in addition to being scientifically and technically trained to carry out laboratory analyzes for the diagnosis of diseases, their prevention and treatment, for the protection and recovery of health; Likewise, it must integrate ethical values ​​with community work to contribute as an agent of social change in the pursuit of general well-being, assuming a participatory role within the health team, so that, together with the other active members of the community, they can develop the necessary mechanisms for the transformation of health services and epidemiological profiles, thus becoming a permanent agent from the responsibility of being and acting with the other.


In this framework of ideas, society demands of professionals a new conception of their performance, a citizen conscience that recognizes their rights and responsibilities with a participatory, protagonist and co-responsible character that is expressed in the social sphere and in public management; guided by a way of life that focuses its strength and drive towards the development of social equilibrium, from a humanist, environmentalist and integrationist conception.


From this perspective, in Venezuela professionals are called to become committed social actors from their being, from their axiological action with communities to collectively solve problems. In the same way, educational institutions are set up to train professionals who transcend their social work to train a new 21st century professional that fosters the relationship between theory and practice, from being and acting in interaction with the environment and in a horizontal, dialectical, critical reflection that allows them to become transforming professionals, allowing them to be social agents for the other as ethical entities in human action. In this new approach, the bioanalysis professional from the axiological components as a social actor is called to take a leading role in the changes that are required under this new biopsychosocial, axiological and spiritual conception of the individual; through values ​​such as community love, respect, responsibility and harmony with the other, the promotion of health, prevention of illness, efficiency in the service, among others.


Figure 1. Mental representation: Problems assumed.


Source: The Authors (2016).


2.1. Training speech in the bioanalysis professional

          The transformation and modernity of study methods in the training of university professionals is an essential task that concerns universities. With the arrival of the 21st century and the scientific and technical progress that preceded and leads him, it requires deep reflections. The university institutes are the place where you experience the set of knowledge that should allow the future professional to start in the exercise of a function effectively, as well as advance in the knowledge of the field of knowledge, so that you can get started in the investigation or in the specialization and deepening in its field of action.


On the other hand, Martínez (2006): supports that one of the functions of university education is of an ethical nature and that a quality university education can not be understood without systematically and rigorously incorporating situations of ethical learning and citizen training. It considers that the university, in the current sociocultural context, is an optimal learning space, not only of a professional and cultural nature in its broadest sense, but also of a human nature and, therefore, of an ethical and moral nature. From these premises, the importance of the World Declaration on Higher Education in the 21st Century: Vision and Action, promulgated during the World Conference on Higher Education (UNESCO, 1998), which is referred to in Articles 2, is shown significantly. 5 and 9, to the role that ethics, research and the humanities in all disciplines have to play in a new vision and a new model of higher education.


On the other hand, institutions of higher education, have in their discourse an institutional commitment that seeks to provide students with a set of intellectual and moral particularities that allow them to interact with others, incorporating ethics and values, so that competent coexist to perform, face complex contexts of daily life, so that they can offer a quality professional service to society. From this point of view, Savater (2005: 12), argues that:

The most important thing in education and, therefore, in teaching, lies not in transmitting information, but in providing the student with the formation of attitudes and values for the ethical construction of knowledge, and building himself simultaneously as people. Education is the most humane and humanizing of all efforts. One is born human, but that is not enough: we also have to become one, humans are born for humanity. We must be born to be human, but we only become fully human when others infect us with their humanity.


2.2. Towards an approximation of the formative discourse of the professional

          Critical formative action implies an innovative language based on pedagogy, which does not only include placing disciplinary knowledge but also political gnosis and transformative aptitude for social coexistence. From the Freirian view, educational communication would be the way in which a subject shows in his relationship with the other, the knowledge of being himself, at the same time as being aware and willing to change.


For this reason, man coexists, which points to his disposition in the world (knowing and thinking). However, its existence becomes in being, which presumes the task of appropriation of its existence in the world (from the space of the random, happening in the explicit / undefined of the being in the cosmos). This coexistence, traced as necessity, practice and strength, is stated in the analogy of the subject with the others and the other. This personifies the first statement of placing oneself in the universe. In this way, the subject's own presence is composed of the other and the other. To be and to be, imply, essentially, to be and to be in and with the world, hence the consciousness is, at the same time, personal and historical-social. Therefore, for Zemelman (1998: 32), his approach that:

Reality constitutes a horizon of possibilities, insofar as it is history, actuality and construction; is the transformation of history into experience and openness to the unprecedented, then, the world of life would be the actuality of man as consciousness of himself, of the trajectory of his life and the need for horizons, this relationship between closure and opening, between consciousness and will allows the installation of man in the world and enhances its adventure, its appropriation, towards other realities, spaces, worlds, languages.


          So we can say that the reconstruction of this discourse bases the reason and the practice of the subject in the ways that the context adapts and represents, either as objective ("tangible realities"), as a potential context (open to possibilities) or as perspectives (complexity and innovation). To which refers a subject located, located, that is in the world and being in that being. It does not refer to having known and given a world of life, but, in order to objectify it, it is necessary to return to it and refigure it (from its volitional, affective and cognitive axiological elements), unveil it to transcend its own limits and pass from the known to the unknown, from practical reality, to such reasoning Van Dijk (2001: 125), raises:

Language and discourse are fundamental and constitutive of the human and of society, and a multidisciplinary theory of discourse can take us a long way in the construction of bridges or translation systems. But not through a reduction to the discourse of all human and social phenomena, but through the construction of a theoretical network in which we analyze the discourse in terms of its structures and cognitive, linguistic, semiotic, interactive, group, institutional, historical and cultural. In this sense, a multidisciplinary discourse study is an excellent way to relate and integrate the human and social sciences.


          Starting from that relationship of being and doing in relation to the other the discourse of training professionals who will intervene and work with people in different areas of life must develop and deal with a set of skills, resources and capabilities.


2.3. Theoretical categories of research

Figure 2. Mental representation: Theoretical categories of research.


Source: The Authors (2016).


3. Methodological Plane

          The investigation is framed in the qualitative paradigm within the recursive interpretative approach, having as a method the hermeneutics, Ricoeur cited by Sandoval (1996: 67), expresses that the hermeneutics is defined as "the theory of the rules that govern an exegesis, that is to say , an interpretation of a particular text or collection of signs susceptible of being considered as a text".


Figure 3. Mental representation: Research plans.


Source: The Authors (2016).


3.1. Approach to the method

          Hermeneutics as a research method proposes that lived experience is essentially an interpretive process and can be carried out from a historical perspective. Van Manen (1997): introduces the phenomenological hermeneutic approach; links phenomenology, hermeneutics and semiotics. The research is presented as a process of textual reflection that contributes to the understanding of practical action. The hermeneutic methodology is carried out exposing the construction of each one of the parties involved to the criticism and providing the opportunity for the revision of the new constructions.

The pragmatic criterion for this methodology is that it leads, successively, to a better understanding; that is, to give meaning or meaning to the interactions in which one is usually committed to others (...) It is necessary to establish a repetitive process in relation to the existing constructions (to which they were given sense) to analyze them and make of its elements something simple and communicable for others (p.35).


          The methodology to approach this research process uses the hermeneutics of the discourses by the social actors: bioanalyst who participate in the experience. It requires understanding the experiences, the ways in which the actors of the process experience their world, what is most significant for them and how they construct these senses. Comprehension, interpretation is a joint process trying to decipher the meanings and meaning of the experience, in order to approach the process in a "hermeneutical circle", an interpretative action as a possibility of "Making talk" knowledge through observation and reflection. "Knowledge has the possibility of being" historicized, "of becoming contemporary, meaning and giving meaning to the experience, in order to approach the process the researcher who interprets (the hermeneut)". (Martínez, 2007: 75).


Here it is tried, interpreting from the social action, how that symbolic world is constructed; construction of social meanings from the actors of the training process. The description represents a first conceptual level in relation to the knowledge of the practice, refers to a process of reflection that aims to organize or organize what has been the progress of the processes, seeking in such dynamics the dimensions that can explain the broader theorization and deep, contributing to turn it into a tool to understand and transform the social reality.


The aim is to elucidate the meaning or meaning that the process has had for the actors involved in the creation of knowledge based on our experience, intervention in a social reality as a first level of theorization about the practice. It represents an articulation between theory and practice. It aims to improve the practice and aspires to enrich, confront and modify the existing theoretical knowledge, contributing to turn it into a tool to understand and transform the social reality.


The aim is to enter into the dynamics of experience, in its complex process, identifying contradictions from their own logic, extracting lessons that can contribute to enrichment, both in practice and in theory. From texts of observations and in-depth interviews of those who know and have experienced the process and interpret reality; they try to recover what they know from their daily practice, seeking to find the most important, most significant, discovering events and subjective dimensions of people such as: beliefs, thoughts, values, experiences, etc.


This information is essential to understand your own vision of the world. It assumes as a premise, what the actors look at with the senses that promote them and the results according to the purposes that they themselves established. This allows us to understand and improve the practice from reflection and understanding of meaning, with a close articulation between theory and practice, as a particular kind of participatory creation of theoretical-practical knowledge, from and for the action of transformation.


This type of methodology is rooted in the comprehensive and interpretative tradition of social research; does not seek to establish causal relationships to explain the phenomenon, seeks to understand the constitutive aspects of a social reality; It is done from the sensory-producing interaction to open alternatives to possible worlds. What guides research is the process of collective analysis and interpretation and construction of the sense of experience, discovering the complex structure of relationships that make up human reality, course of experience.


          In the concrete methodological field of this research we find ourselves in the need to identify a formative discourse from the axiological that will allow us to approach the significance of the process, trying to locate the different perspectives of the actors involved. And that's how we got into the sources: assessments of bioanalysis professionals and their social praxis; for later, with this accumulation of information, address the interpretation; here we will try to grasp the meaning of the experience; from the significant categories we were locating the stories, the basic nuclei, until discovering the lived process.


Figure 4. Mental representation: Methodological construct.


Source: The Authors (2016).


4. Final thoughts

Social and economic development requires that educational systems offer new skills and competences, which allow them to benefit from new emerging forms of socialization and actively contribute to the preventive development of health, under a system whose main asset is knowledge, adaptable to change that can build and deconstruct their learning, so that it can take on the innovations that are presented to us on a daily basis and thus innovate in order to redefine our current condition, to achieve the redefinition of the competencies of professionals in this case the Bioanalyst of the 21st century .


In this regard, Eileen (2003): relates skills with knowledge, resources, access, technology and the ability to use this knowledge as the basis, to provide high quality services in terms of information services and personal skills represent a group of attitudes, skills and values ​​that allow professionals to work effectively and contribute positively to organizations and their social action demonstrating their value of their contributions in an environment of constant change. All change begins with a vision and a decision to take action, considering that in the social and transcendental psycho-biological center of the man of the 21st century is diversity, in terms of ideas and idealisms, values, forms of behavior, of being and think. This condition can be used as a tool to find meaning in knowing, having and knowing how to do. So that, through this sense, the human being reaches his full realization and builds his happiness in the free possession of his unique and true kindness as it should be.


5. References

Bermúdez, C. (2006). Necesidad de la Bioética en la Educación Superior. Acta Bioética. 12(1), 35-40. Recuperado de: http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S1726-569X2006000100005


Eileen, B. (2003). Competencias sociales de estudiantes. Barcelona, España: Learson.


UNESCO (1998). La educación superior en el siglo XXI: Visión y acción. Conferencia Mundial sobre la Educación Superior. Recuperado de: http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/wche/declaration_spa.htm


Martínez, M. (2007). Comportamiento Humano. Nuevos Métodos de Investigación. México: Editorial Trillas.


Martínez, M. (2006). Formación para la ciudadanía y educación superior. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, Nº 42, págs. 85-102. Recuperado de: http://rieoei.org/rie42a05.pdf


Savater, F. (2005). El valor de educar. Barcelona: Ariel S.A.


Sandoval, C. (1996). Investigación cualitativa. México: ARFO Editores.


Van Dijk, T. (2001). El análisis crítico del discurso y el pensamiento social. Athenea Digital, núm. 1: 18-24. Recuperado de: http://www.raco.cat/index.php/Athenea/article/viewFile/34083/33922


Van Manen, M. (1997). Investigación Educativa y Experiencia vivida. Ciencia humana para una pedagogía de la acción y de la sensibilidad. Barcelona, España: 2003 Idea Books, S.A. de la traducción y la edición en lengua castellana, ISBN: 84-B236-283-6. Recuperado de: https://es.scribd.com/doc/172841140/Libro-Investigacion-educativa-y-experiencia-de-vida-Van-Manen


Zemelman, H. (1998). Sujeto: existencia y potencia. Barcelona, España: Editorial Anthropos.



Doris Coromoto Pérez de Abreu

e-mail: doris_cpda@hotmail.com


Born in the city of Valera, Trujillo State, Venezuela. Doctorate in Education Universidad Rafael María Baralt, Master in Teaching for Higher Education in the same university, Bachelor of Bioanalysis, ULA. Researcher in the area of teaching, belonging to the line of research Memory, Education and Emerging Discourses of the UNERMB. Bioanalysis professional with 16 years of experience. 



Carol Del Carmen Terán González

e-mail: carolteranula@gmail.com


Born in the city of Valera, Trujillo State, Venezuela. Doctoral studies in Education course at the Universidad Rafael María Baralt, has a Masters in Teaching for Higher Education at the same university, a Master's in Latin American Literature at the University of the Andes and a Bachelor's Degree in Education, Spanish Mention and Literature ULA-NURR, the Center's researcher of literary and linguistic research Mario Briceño Iragorry (CILL) ULA-NURR, Head of the research and project unit of the Casa de Historia Trujillo, writer and researcher with 14 years of service in the area of ​​education and literature. Speaker at national and international events. Guest professor in undergraduate and postgraduate, ULA, UNERMB, UNESR. Coordinator of the research line Memory, Education and Emerging Discourses (UNERMB), member of the Citizenship Research Line, hermeneutics and social projects. (UNERS). She has published articles in different refereed journals of the country including Sapiencia, Cifra Nueva, Revista de Cultura Centro Nacional de Historia, Revista de Ingeniería UVM, among others.



María Inez Albarracín

e-mail: elprincipitoysurosa2como1@gmail.com


Born in the state Táchira, city of Caño Azul, Venezuela. Graduate in Nursing ULA, specialist in Nursing Care in Areas of Critical Care graduated from LUZ, Doctorate from the Universidad Experimental “Rafael María Baralt”, Assistant Professor ULA-Táchira. Researcher and Research Works Tutor.


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- Original Version in Spanish -

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29394/Scientific.issn.2542-2987.2018.