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The Culture of Peace from a Transdisciplinary Perspective


Author: Nahir Josefina Rodríguez De Betancourt

Universidad Fermín Toro, UFT


Barinas, Venezuela



Several researchers, such as: Fisas, Truvilla, UNESCO, among others, agree on the importance of the Culture of Peace, which is a human project of great importance and is a way to achieve harmony between the localities of each nation. This essay focuses on the Culture of Peace from a Transdisciplinary Perspective. Said essay is of a guiding and informative nature with documentary support. The purpose of this is to address the issue of the importance of the Culture of Peace, as a mechanism to promote in individuals respect for life, harmony among people, security, relevance to society and for in this way, the redemption of values ​​such as solidarity, respect, love, work, coexistence, among other interactions. Likewise, a culture that defeats elements that have to do with violence, peer abuse, discrimination and the preference of religions. On the contrary, we want the consolidation of brotherhood, justice, freedom and democracy in the resolution of problems or conflicts in the school, the family and the community.


Keywords: culture; peace; peacebuilding.


Date Received: 18-11-2017

Date Acceptance: 17-02-2018



La Cultura de Paz desde una Perspectiva Transdisciplinar



Diversos investigadores, tales como:  Fisas, Truvilla, UNESCO, entre otros, coinciden en señalar la importancia de la Cultura de Paz, que es un proyecto humano de mucha envergadura y es una vía para conseguir una armonía entre las localidades de cada nación. El presente ensayo se enfoca en la Cultura de Paz desde una Perspectiva Transdisciplinar. Dicho ensayo, es de carácter orientador e informativo con sustento documental. El propósito del mismo consiste en efectuar un abordaje al tema sobre la importancia que tiene la Cultura de Paz, como mecanismo para fomentar en los individuos el respeto por la vida, la armonía entre las personas, la seguridad, la pertinencia con la sociedad y por ende el recate de valores tales como solidaridad, respeto, amor, trabajo, convivencia, entre otras interacciones. Igualmente, una cultura que echa por tierra elementos que tengan que ver con la violencia, el maltrato entre pares, la discriminación y la preferencia de religiones. Al contrario, se quiere la consolidación de la hermandad, la justicia, la libertad y la democracia en la resolución de problemas o conflictos en la institución escolar, la familia y la comunidad.


Palabras clave: cultura; paz; consolidación de la paz.


Fecha de Recepción: 18-11-2017

Fecha de Aceptación: 17-02-2018



1. Introduction

  The theme of violence has been the subject of discussion in different expectations addressed as an international discussion in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO (1998a) and the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO (2002), noting: "violence as a public health problem that limits the social and economic development of societies" (page 3). The authors refer that violence is part of a public health problem, hindering the welfare of citizens and in favor of their social and economic growth.


  For Ortega y Gasset, cited by Fisas (1998), they stated: "The enormous effort that war is can only be avoided if peace is understood as a greater effort ... if war is something that is done, also peace, it is a something that has to be done, that has to be manufactured "(page 9). From the point raised by the author, he alludes to the similarity between war and peace, since both have to look for the causes and consequences that generate them; therefore, they require actions that have an impact on reinforcing attitudes of behavior change towards the reduction of war and strengthening peace in individuals; taking into account their emotions, rights and welfare.


  The United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture, UNESCO (1998b): defined the concepts of "culture of non-violence" and "culture of peace", such as: "A culture of peace is a set of values, attitudes, traditions, behaviors and lifestyles" (p.2). This refers that the culture of peace allows people to strengthen attitudes towards a healthy coexistence, with values ​​of tolerance, love, equality, solidarity and respect towards each one of the subjects that are in a context. In addition, it seeks the promotion of full harmony, enhancement of understanding spirits and mutual cooperation in community, family and school entities that make an active life in a specific context, that is, it is reflected at local, regional, national and global levels. In this regard, Tuvilla (2004), raises:

Education for the culture of peace is defined as the global process of society, through which people and social groups learn to develop consciously within the national and international community and for the benefit of them, the totality of their skills, attitudes, skills and knowledge to achieve each of the goals that make up the Culture of Peace (p.11).


  Interpreting the author, the culture of peace represents the universal process of every society in which the individual and collective internalize, interpret and reflect on the development of the community. Likewise, it consolidates the potentialities, qualities, capacities and wisdom that globalize the individual in the culture of peace. Therefore, it generates or originates the values of tolerance, love, respect, solidarity, among others in the daily behavior of human beings.       


2. Development

  The culture of peace defends justice and equality in all human beings in indigenous communities, in individuals who are refugees and in distant localities; that is why UNESCO incorporates cultural programs that incorporate the promotion of cultural and religious diversity, that is, the meeting between cultures. Also, encourage people and artists to put their talent at the service of peace. Even so, and despite the fact that man has the capacity to generate knowledge, talk and mediate through the word, he continues to cultivate a vengeful pedagogy when there is discrimination against poverty and where the economic aspect has been given priority: annexed territories, or allies, markets and strategic energy sources to guarantee imperial dominance over time.


  That is why, when researching peace, it leads to deepen the thought of the welfare of communities, their interests, concerns, needs that are paramount in human development; generating the appreciation of culture, behavior and changes in attitudes; without forgetting that man since his arrival in the world has gone through various changes such as social, cultural, educational, technological, among others.


  The necessary condition to grow in the most human dimensions is to face and resolve positively the conflicts that life poses and it is the full acceptance of one of the constitutive characteristics of the dynamics of improvement of people and societies. For this, it is necessary to strengthen and potential in the subjects a culture of peace that access the interaction, harmony, mediation, negotiation and empathy in the resolution of conflicts.


  At the moment different problems have arisen and one of them is the absence of tolerance before situations of conflicts inherent to the human relations, which rests in the foreground in the family as main entity diffuser or as main entity of coexistence. In families, certain values ​​are strengthened; having the responsibility of its members the construction and deepening of them. However, the school also has inherence in the transmission of these values ​​to the authors and actors of the educational event; promoting, strengthening, and motivating through actions that affect changes in attitude and knowledge.


  In this way, the school is inserted in the postmodern, violent and rapidly changing times, which demand the effectiveness of the peace culture of living in harmony, healthy peace, peaceful and efficient coexistence with all the members of the school, family and community. Forging a culture of peace is a motivation. The idea of ​​teaching nonviolence in school is an arduous task taking into account the competitive atmosphere and political confrontations, which can induce competition both individually and collectively. That is why participation, through peaceful dialogue for understanding, is necessary for the education of this century. It is about teaching to live together from the principles of justice and rules of citizen participation, because we believe in democracy.


  Violence can come from conflicts; indicating that a war does not represent a conflict; analyzing that the culture of peace does not necessarily have to go against war or violence, in other words, you can not access violence or aggression. It is there the importance of the ideal of transdisciplinarity that seeks the interrelation of individuals through synergy, linkage with reality in terms of thought, emotions, perception, valuation, all or this for the benefit of a collective.


  In order and direction, transdisciplinarity is immersed in a logic of reasoning in which the parts of a whole are interpreted and analyzed and vice versa the whole of the parts, directed towards a meaning of the things that are found in a given context. This reasoning goes beyond the linear and vertical; exposing open, flexible and interconnected thoughts with events that are recurrent, however, represents an important definition because the transdisciplinary approach emphasizes the representation of extravagances or contracts in knowledge with the purpose of generating images that are closer to reality studied, its causes, consequences and origins.


With regard to the social environment where the individual develops, merits emerging paradigms that lead to an integral formation adjusted to reality and the new times that citizens live hand in hand with technological advances, environmental crisis, problems among individuals, the social, educational, financial, political interests, among others that suffer in a society; therefore, transformations are sought that affect the culture of peace and therefore the strengthening of family-school-community.


Hence, the transdisciplinary leads to a set of knowledge, interpretation and interaction of knowledge that an individual possesses; leading to reflection as the main line in the transdisciplinary movement whose fundamental objective is framed from the universal evolution. It is about understanding complex and transdisciplinary thinking in organizations or communities. In this regard, Nicolescu, cited by Carmona (2004), exposes:

Transdisciplinarity, for its part, refers to other areas or dimensions in the world of knowledge, a logic and a methodology, it is not a new discipline, it concerns only what is between the disciplines and disciplines, and even beyond the disciplines. As this researcher formulates, the transdisciplinary knowledge mode emanates as a requirement of society, linked directly to the social, to education, to the ecological, to the management of companies, urban architecture; where critical analysis and possible solutions require the return of the force of the subject in the production of knowledge for the education we want (p.1).


  The author reflects transdisciplinarity and points towards areas in which the knowledge of logic and methodology is immersed, that is, it involves the modes of thought beyond the requirements of a society, but on the contrary it is intertwined with the educational, environmental, social, economic, cultural and political; applying the knowledge society in the resolution of conflicts presented in a particular field.


  In this order of ideas, one of the theories that sustains transdisciplinarity is the postmodern social theory. It argues that postmodern culture shows that the idea that man can be violent, by nature or that is good or peaceful, or that society is corrupting, but something intermediate that is neutral is not shared; that is, for the school as a complex social organization, the main objective will be to manage the tension between the social meaning taught by the school and the individual freedom that is promoted in it.


  Another of the theories is the humanistic, which suggests a new way of thinking and producing knowledge, that integrates, respects and sustains all the knowledge that contributes to the development of teachers, not only as people but as beings that are part and that they are inseparably linked to a common territory, and they travel in the same planetary ship. In addition, that education generates significant changes in the intellectual level of individuals, that is, a positive culture of peace is strengthened in which they are formed in harmonious environments, social welfare, active life, effective self-esteem, revaluation of values, critics and reflective.


  Similarly, another of the theories is Maslow's Theory of Human Needs, cited by Castillo (2008): who states that unmet needs cause discontent in subjects. The basic human needs have to be met and among these needs is to build a school culture of peace based on the strengthening of dialogue in school, family and community, as a transforming element of it and as a means of mediating conflicts.


3. Conclusions

You learn to be violent you can relearn to be peaceful beings and to live in community; planning and executing various educational and programmatic forums in various sectors of the community for retraining in churches and educational institutions.


Nonetheless, campaigning in the promotion of the culture of peace; reinforcing the values ​​of coexistence, solidarity, cooperation, love, work and honesty, among others; developing healthy parental-filial and marital relationships, which foster the development of a society free of violence; That is why the restoration of the family is the key to eliminating violence.


Therefore, parents, mothers or caregivers who have children of school age who participate in the school their children attend through the parent school program workshops; elaborating and executing projects related to the injustice issue because it reduces the human being in his actions, in his scopes and in his potentialities. When justice is the great absentee in human and social relations, peace deteriorates.


From there, establish strategic alliances with the government of the State, mayorships, educational authorities of the State, public and private universities and other agencies active in the promulgation, dissemination and strengthening of the culture of peace, social welfare and quality of life, as elements important to mediate the economic, social, educational and cultural crisis.


Finally, create work tables to debate whether the idea that happiness is achieved through the self-realization of the individual leading the human being to be insensitive to the claims of others. It can be approached with permanent meetings, forums, seminars, film-forum community, sporting and cultural events. This will allow the strengthening, approach and integration of parents, mothers, representatives to the educational process.


4. References

Castillo, R. (2008). Teoría de las Necesidades Humanas. México: Trillas, págs. 15-17.


Carmona, M. (2004). Transdisciplinariedad: Una propuesta para la Educación Superior en Venezuela. Revista de Pedagogía, 25(73), 59-70. Recuperado de: http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0798-97922004000200007


Fisas, V. (1998). Cultural de paz y gestión de conflictos. Barcelona: Icaria-Antrazyt / Ediciones UNESCO, págs. 9-15. ISBN UNESCO: 92-3-303499-2, ISBN Icaria: 84-7426-357-3. Recuperado de:  https://books.google.co.ve/books?id=s_uQ6gFE4mYC&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq


Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, UNESCO (1998a,b). Declaración y Programa de Acción por una cultura de Paz. Resolución Adoptada por la Asamblea General A/RES/52/13. [sin referencia a un Comité Principal (A/52/L.4/Rev.1 y Add.1)]. Recuperado de: http://www.um.es/paz/resolucion2.html


Organización Panamericana de la Salud (2002). Informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud: Resumen. Washington, D.C.: OPS. Publicado en Español por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud para la Organización Mundial de la Salud. ISBN: 92-75-32422-0, págs. 4-6.  Recuperado de: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/es/summary_es.pdf


Tuvilla, J. (2004). Cultura de Paz y Educación. Manual de paz y conflictos. España: Universidad de Granada. ISBN: 84-338-3087-2, págs. 387-426. Recuperado de: http://ipaz.ugr.es/wp-content/files/publicaciones/ColeccionEirene/eirene_manual/Cultura_de_Paz_y_Educacion.pdf



Nahir Josefina Rodríguez De Betancourt

e-mail: nahir.rodriguez182@gmail.com


Born in Sanare, Lara state, Venezuela. Bachelor of Science in the Ciclo Técnico José Antonio Páez, Portuguesa State, professor in Integral Education in the Universidad Pedagógica Experimental Libertador-Instituto de Mejoramiento Profesional del Magisterio, academic center Barinas, postgraduate in Community Education Universidad Pedagógica Experimental Libertador-Instituto de Mejoramiento Profesional del Magisterio, academic core Barinas, PhD in Educational Sciences of the Universidad Fermín Toro (UFT). Professional trajectory: permanent professor of the Ministry of People's Power for Education and currently serves as Head of Registration, Control and Evaluation of Studies at the Escuela Técnica Comercial Nacional “José Leonardo Chirino”, Barinas municipality.


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- Original Version in Spanish -

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29394/Scientific.issn.2542-2987.2018.